Colour meanings by country

Africa

Red: Death, bloodshed
Yellow: High rank
Gold: Continuous life
Brown: Earth
Green: Fertility
White: Victory, purity
Black: Age, maturity, masculinity

Australia, New Zealand, Philippines

Red: Sun
Orange: Animals
Yellow: Resurrection, rebirth
Gold: Continuous life
Tan: Earth
Brown: Earth
Green: Craftsmanship
Blue: Water
White: Death, mourning
Black: N/A

Brazil

Red: Visibility, vibrancy, masculine
Orange: Environment
Yellow: Envy, jealousy
Brown: Nature
Green: Envy, environment
Purple: Mourning
Black: Sophistication, authority, mourning, religion, formality, fear, anger, grief

China, Honk Kong, Taiwan

Red: Communism, celebration, government, joy, fertility, good fortune, love, happiness, lucky, bride’s colour
Orange: Love, happiness, humility, good health, immortality
Yellow: Masculinity, happiness, pure, pleasant, happy, good taste, progressive, authority, royal and trustworthy
Gold: Preciousness, prestige, wealth, status, decoration
Green: Pure, reliable, sincere, trustworthy
Blue: Sky, water, high quality, trustworthy, good taste
Purple: Expensive, love
White: Death, mourning, pure, neutral, west, autumn
Black: Water, life, stability, the unknown, powerful, expensive, high quality

Egypt

Red: N/A
Yellow: Soul, sun, happiness, prosperity
Gold: Wealth
Green: Fertility, vegetation
Blue: Truth, justice, reproduction, virtue, faith

France

Red: Blood, passionate love, lust, virile, masculine
Orange: Earth
Yellow: Summer, joy, infidelity
Gold: Decoration, light, luxury
Green: Outdoors
Blue: Water, reliability, trust
Black: Grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

Germany, Austria and Switzerland

Red: Fear, anger, jealousy, unlucky
Yellow: Cowardice, persecution, sunshine, envy, jealousy
Gold: Money, wealth
Brown: Earth
Green: Earth
Blue: Ocean
Purple: Expensive, love
White: Nature
Silver: Sophistication
Black: Fear, anger, jealousy, grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

India

Red: Birth, fertility, ambition, desire
Yellow: Sun, commerce
Orange: Death, rebellion
Green: Nature
Blue: Heavens, love, truth, mercy
Pink: Happiness, hope
White: Creation, rebirth, light, serenity, reincarnation
Black: Laziness, anger, intolerance, dullness, stupidity

Italy

Red: Light, fidelity
Gold: Wealth, luxury, divinity, greed, jewelry
Brown: Earth, penitence, humility
Blue: Mourning, judgmental, heaven, purity
Purple: Nobility, endurance of suffering, martyrdom
White: Virtue, purity
Silver: Wealth, luxury, craftsmanship
Black: Humility, death, mourning, grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

Japan

Red: Blood, passion, self-sacrifice, strength, love, anger, jealousy
Orange: Love, happiness
Yellow: Envy, good taste (but disliked when used in websites)
Gold: Decoration, wealth, prestige
Brown: Earth, strength, durability
Green: Love, happiness good taste, adventure
Blue: High quality, trustworthy, good taste
Purple: Royalty, sin, fear, expensive
Pink: Femininity, youth, good health, expensive, sin, fear
White: Death, mourning
Silver: Masculinity, high-tech, strength, precision
Black: Non-being, night, unknown, mystery, anger, powerful, expensive, fear

Mexico

Red: Sunny, religion, compass, vibrancy, intensity, death, masculine
Yellow: Sun, envy, jealousy
Gold: Wealth, church adornments
Green: Envy
Blue: Mourning, trust, tranquility
Purple: Anger, envy
White: Pure, clean, peasant
Black: Mourning, religion, respect, death, fear, anger, grief, jealousy

Middle East, Israel

Red: Love, sacrifice, sin, blood, anger, hatred, strength
Yellow: Saintly
Gold: Decoration
Blue: The Lord, glory
Purple: Sea, divinity
White: Nature, mercy, peace, purity joy, wisdom

Russia (and Commonwealth of Independent States)

Red: Communism, revolution, beauty
Yellow: Envy, jealousy
Gold: Aristocracy
Blue: Hope, purity, peace, serenity
Silver: Religion
Black: Fear, anger, jealousy

Scandinavia - Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland

Red: Strength, positive (Norway)
Orange: Heart, warmth
Yellow: Heart, warmth
Green: Sterility
Blue: Water, clean, poor, cold & masculine (Norway)
White: Evil repellant, peace, nature

Spain, Portugal

Orange: Blood, aggression
Yellow: Treason
Green: Racy, sexy, cheap, agriculture

Grey: Strength
Black: Power, death, piety, grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

Western Europe

Red: Sexy, love, romance, vigor, optimism, strength, caution
Orange: Visibility, cheap, loud
Yellow: Visibility, hazard, quality
Gold: Mysticism, luxury, wealth, excessive
Brown: Masculinity, earth
Green: Nature, fertility, confidence, jealousy, inexperienced
Blue: Sky, fidelity, serenity, truth, reliability, responsibility, emotion
Purple: Nobility, luxury, power, vanity
Pink: Delicate, flirtation, femininity, sensitivity, soothing
White: Pure, clean, good, empty, bleak, neutral, antiseptic, surrender
Silver: Masculinity, technology, expensive, craftsmanship
Grey: Architecture, ambiguity, wisdom, experience
Black: Grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

UK

Red: Power, authority, masculine, love, lust, fear, anger
Orange: Protestant religion
Yellow: Happy, jealousy
Gold: Royalty
Brown: Earth, honesty, manual labor
Green: Environment, Catholicism, quality, envy, good taste
Blue: Tranquil, dignity, decorum, high quality, corporate, masculine
Purple: Royalty, power, authority
White: Leisure, sports, peace, purity, happiness
Grey: Sophistication, elegance, traditional, tasteful, strength
Black: Mourning, death, dignity, expensive, grief, fear, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters

USA and CANADA

Red: Excitement, warning, sex, passion, adultery, safety, rescue, hot, spicy, love
Orange: Visibility, refreshing, danger
Yellow: Caution, sunny, happiness, cowardice, warmth
Gold: Money, wealth luminosity
Brown: Dullness, boring, fertile, strength, unprocessed, poverty
Green: Masculinity, freshness, healthy, envy, jealousy, inexperience, good taste, adventure
Blue: Soothing, high quality, trustworthy, good taste
Purple: Nobility, bravery, law, excess, love
Pink: Femininity, childhood, fun, sweetness, homosexuality
White: Clean, pure, elegant, antiseptic
Silver: Sleek, classy, modern
Grey: Humility, grief, depression, strength, wisdom
Black: Death, evil, sin, nothingness, business, adult, formal, sexy, grief, sorrow, ceremonial dress for justices and priests, dress of subservience for servants and waiters, fear, anger, jealousy, powerful, expensive

REFERENCES

M. M. Aslam (2006). Are You Selling the Right Colour? A Cross-cultural Review of Colour as a Marketing Cue. Journal of Marketing Communications, 12(1) pp. 15–30

M. De Bortoli and J. Maroto (2001). Translating colours in web site localization. In Proceedings of the European Languages and the Implementation of Communication and Information Technologies (Elicit) conference. University of Paisley.

D. Cyra, M. Head and H. Larios (2010). Colour appeal in website design within and across cultures: A multi-method evaluation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68, pp.1–21.

R. P. Grossman and J. Z. Wisenblit (1999). What we know about consumers’ color choices. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5(3), pp. 78–88.

R. B. Hupka, Z. Zaleski, J. Otto, L. Reidl and N. V. Tarabrina (1997). The colors of anger, envy, fear, and jealousy: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 28(2), pp. 156–171.

L. Jacobs, C. Keown, R. Worthley and K. Ghymn (1991). Cross-cultural colour comparisons: global marketers beware! International Marketing Review, 8(3), pp. 21–30.

T. J. Madden, K. Hewitt, and M. S. Roth (2000). Managing images in different cultures: a cross-national study of color meanings and preferences. Journal of International Marketing, 8(4), pp. 90–107.

C. M. Neal, P. G. Quester and D.I. Hawkins (2002). Consumer Behaviour: Implications for Marketing Strategy, 3rd edition. Roseville, NSW: McGraw-Hill.

B. H. Schmitt (1995). Language and visual imagery: issues in corporate identities in East Asia, Columbia. Journal of World Business, 30(4), pp. 28–36.

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